DIFFERENCES AND SIMILARITIES OF PUBLIC TRANSPORT ORGANIZATION AND MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS
To make planning, management and organization of public transport effective it is necessary to assign particular tasks to entities responsible for them. In the analysed regions the responsibility for public transport operation is divided between local governments, public transport authorities and specialized departments in city halls and municipal offices.
MAP OF REGIONS UNDER ANALYSIS
The South Baltic regions which constitute the area of research within INTERCONNECT project include:
Blekinge (Sweden), Guldborgsund (Denmark), Klaipeda (Lithuania), Pomorskie Voivodeship (Poland), the City of Rostock (Germany) and Viimsi Municipality, (Estonia).
𝐈𝐍𝐂𝐑𝐄𝐀𝐒𝐈𝐍𝐆 𝐍𝐔𝐌𝐁𝐄𝐑 𝐎𝐅 𝐏𝐑𝐈𝐕𝐀𝐓𝐄 𝐂𝐀𝐑𝐒:
The EU passenger car fleet grew by 4.5% from 2012 to 2016 (the number of vehicles on the road went from 241 to 252 million). The growing trend as for the number of private cars can be observed in almost all countries subject to analysis (table 3). Research conducted in Sweden shows that 83% of their households have got at least one private car (in Poland 63%, in Denmark 60%).
𝐈𝐍𝐓𝐑𝐎𝐃𝐔𝐂𝐓𝐈𝐎𝐍 𝐎𝐅 𝐅𝐑𝐄𝐄 𝐏𝐔𝐁𝐋𝐈𝐂 𝐓𝐑𝐀𝐍𝐒𝐏𝐎𝐑𝐓 𝐒𝐄𝐑𝐕𝐈𝐂𝐄𝐒
To change the inhabitants’ travel behaviour and encourage as many of them as possible to use public transport instead of private cars subsequent local governments in various countries decide to introduce zero-fare public transport services. We can observe a wide range of various solutions applied. Depending on the conditions fare-free travels apply to: school children, people of certain age (most often seniors), people registered within a particular area, residents of a particular country, and all people without any exceptions (including tourists).
The offer of public transport, its quality and share in modal split affect the EU inhabitants' quality of life. The reduction in the number of travels by private cars contributes to limiting the costs of congestion, volume of emitted noise and air pollution as well as the number of road accidents.
By definition, public transport is “a system of vehicles such as buses and trains that operate at regular times on fixed routes and are used by the public”. The four basic aims of public transport operation include:
•provide access to employment, education, retail, health, recreational facilities, etc.
•ensuring the possibility to travel for all inhabitants who cannot or do not want to use private cars;
•providing travels compared to which the use of private car is ineffective for economic, time-based or ecological reasons;
•being the actual alternative to private car.
On 11.4.2019 the Interconnect partner network of Rostock (containing City of Rostock, RSAG -local transport association and regional planning association region Rostock) invited to a joint activity WP 5.1 and 5.2 workshop to the Hanseatic City of Rostock. Rostock is WP 5 leader of the INTERCONNECT project. Most of Rostock's activities with WP partners will be implemented in 2019, considering the first outcomes from other work packages.
On Monday the 11th of March a meeting took place in Karlskrona between Stena Line and Region Blekinge including Blekingetrafiken. Purpose of the meeting was to investigate how the new ticket system Blekingetrafiken is implementing could work together with the booking system of Stena Line. First step is to investigate deeper how these two systems could communicate. The long-term goal for the cooperation is a one ticket solution for the ferry passengers travelling with no car between Blekinge (Sweden) and Pomorskie Region (Poland). Participants in the meeting were Anders Hellberg, Fredric Torstensson, Magnus Forsberg, Lars Karlinius and Mattias Andersson.
The InnoBaltica Ltd. has published a report about the project INTERCONNECT and the WP 4.3. The aim of this study is to support decision-making and implementation processes in the introduction of a public transport toll collection system common for all transport organisers and transport undertakings. The system may be used for intraregional and international connections. This study presents the objectives and principles underlying the introduction of a uniform toll collection system, the most important information and analyses concerning economic, technological and legal factors influencing the system, as well as the concept of its pilot implementation.
You can read more about it in the report: http://interconnect.one/works-results
On 14th December 2018, the Interconnect project partners held the monthly online meeting to review the implementation status and staff changes.
The European Union Strategy for the Baltic Sea Region (EUSBSR) flagship project INTERCONNECT addresses the challenge of curbing the car-reliant mobility trend in the South Baltic (SB) are through user-adjusted and more sustainable public transport services for regional and cross- border travels. The current public transport offer hardly meets customer expectations for easines and attractiveness of regional and cross-border journeys, with scarce range of integrated ticket options for multimodal rides, difficult access to one-spot passenger information and no clear benefits for users when choosing the public transport over car.
Infrastructure and technical facilities
The importance of infrastructure has for instance been highlighted by the good practice of the integrated regular interval timetable. In order to allow certain departure as well as arrival times, trains have to reach certain speeds. To form a proper network across modes and for convenient transfer the vehicles have to also meet at certain node stations at defined intervals. These measures are usually not possible without infrastructural adaptations since investments in e.g. new stations, transport routes and the fleet can be necessary for meaningful time-table changes.
Society seeks to move the transport sector towards sustainability, but operational plans for how this shall be achieved, over and above reaching fossil fuel independence, are still missing. Planning for any societal system to develop towards sustainability includes many complicated tasks. To effectively deal with such considerations, there is a need for a framework with principles for sustainability that are universal for any sector as boundary conditions for redesign (i.e., covering all aspects of sustainability regardless of scale) and with guidelines for how any organization or sector can create economically feasible step-by-step transition plans to comply with the boundary conditions.
Klaipeda 8 th of March, 2018: there were 17 participants at the workshop in Klaipeda and seven people from the organizing team as well as four additional table leaders. Based on that, and the signature issues (Fehler! Verweisquelle konnte nicht gefunden werden.), the organizing team planned to have groups focusing on four perspectives (Resource bases, Technical and business models, Passenger value, and Governance and Spatial planning). Governance and Spatial planning were merged as the results from the previous workshops showed that they were closest related to each other. There were unfortunately not enough participants to have all four groups, so the resource base perspective was instead integrated in the others. To meet the preferences of the local host the target group was slightly changed in the Klaipeda case. Rather than inviting a wide range of stakeholders the focus was on publicly funded organizations (e.g. The Region of Vilnius and Klaipeda, the Municipalities, and the Klaipeda Transport Administration).
Gdynia 22nd February, 2018: there were 53 participants at the workshop in Gdynia, including eight from the organizing team (InnoBaltica in Gdynia and BTH) and seven additional table leaders from InnoBaltica and HIE-RO in Rostock. As there where almost 80 participants enrolled, the organizing team decided to extend the group work perspectives to seven and due to the difference in signature issues (Fehler! Verweisquelle konnte nicht gefunden werden.) adjust the focus slightly (Resources bases, Spatial, Technical 1 – ticketing, Technical 2 – vehicles and infrastructure, Passenger value 1 – Accessibility and affordability of Public Transport, Passenger value 2 - additional values of Public Transport, Governance and business models). The Passenger value 1 and Governance and business models were later combined for the current reality and solutions sessions since some participants left the workshop. There was an overweight on participants from publicly funded organizations (e.g. Region of Pomorskie, Municipalities, InnoBaltica, and the Polish Transport Administration, but also a few participants from companies involved in public transport (e.g. QB-mobile, LG CNS, Indata Utilities SA, Asseco Data systems).
Karlskrona 13th February, 2018: there were 43 participants at the workshop in Karlskrona, including six from the organizing team and two additional table leaders. Based on that, and the signature issues (3.1 )the organizing team decided to have groups focusing on five perspectives (Resource bases, Spatial, Technical and business models, Passenger needs, and Governance). There was an overweight on participants from publicly funded organizations (e.g. Region Blekinge, the Municipalities, and the Swedish Transport Administration), but also a few participants from companies involved in public transport (e.g. CGI, Food tankers, and Stena Line). Representatives from InnoBaltica from Gdansk (Poland) and HIE-RO from Rostock (Germany) provided their perspectives as well.