By definition, public transport is “a system of vehicles such as buses and trains that operate at regular times on fixed routes and are used by the public”. The four basic aims of public transport operation include:
•provide access to employment, education, retail, health, recreational facilities, etc.
•ensuring the possibility to travel for all inhabitants who cannot or do not want to use private cars;
•providing travels compared to which the use of private car is ineffective for economic, time-based or ecological reasons;
•being the actual alternative to private car.
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All respondents taking part in the survey agreed that the solution which should be implemented in all partner regions within the project involves further integration of public transport. However, it was emphasized that the integration of public transport should occur not only within one means of transport (for example only within bus transport), but also in the whole public transport system. 95% of respondents indicated that in the regions the solutions related to marketing research should be replicated as an instrument for shaping public transport offer. 95% of respondents also specified that alternative fuels should be used in public transport in all regions. Whereby, some of the respondents underlined that from among all available technologies related to city buses alternative power supply, the decision makers should choose electric buses since they constitute the future of public transport.
During the seminar on September 6, 2018, entitled BENCHMARKS FOR THE CURRENT PUBLIC TRANSPORT SYSTEMS – CONCLUSIONS, the proposed model features of public transport in the analysed regions, identified and presented in the report in section - SELECTED EXAMPLES OF BEST PRACTICES ON PUBLIC TRANSPORT SOLUTIONS - were elaborated and discussed.
INTEGRATION OF PUBLIC TRANSPORT – experts agree that the integration of public transport should result in improving the quality of services and rationalizing the expenses from public funds incurred on public transport operations. The Region of Rostock has significant experience in this respect. The experience is especially valuable since public transport integration may also generate adverse effects. The integration of public transport may lead to market monopolization (decrease of competition). If competition between operators is decreased, the pressure to maintain or improve the quality of rendered services may cease to exist.
LIST OF STRENGTHS OF PUBLIC TRANSPORT IN REGIONS UNDER ANALYSIS
- Integration of public transport
The first in nearly 40 years railway line in Poland built from scratch. When it was put into operation in 2015, the newly built railway line was 18 km in length and had eight stops and the most advancedrailway traffic control and safety systems in Poland. PKM line connected Gdansk and Gdynia with Lech Walesa Airport and the Kashubian region (Koscierzyna and Kartuzy), and facilitated traveling between the centres of the city and the outskirts. The project has been still under development.
In December 2017, another two stops, Gdynia Karwiny and Gdynia Stadion were put into operation. Between 2020 and 2023, the electrification of PKM line is scheduled as well as the construction of another station, Gdansk Firoga.
PUBLIC TRANSPORT IN KLAIPEDA
New route-taxi service was launched on April 16th, 2018 together with new integrated e-ticketing system. Launching of this project finished service integration in Klaipeda, and started implementation of new e-ticketing system which will be finished in October, 2018.
Intercombi ticket for a quick visit to neighbors
The Intercombi-Ticket aims to further promote mobility between German-Danish neighbours. The European Union promotes cross-border integration between Rostock and the neighbouring Danish municipality Guldborgsund with attractive passenger transport services. According to Andrea Doliwa of Verkehrsverbund Warnow (VVW), "This ticket combines the individually purchased tickets of cooperation partners VVW, Scandlines and Movia."
NEW BUSES IN BLEKINGE 2014
In the latest procurement covering bus operator in Blekinge 120 new buses were put into operation all over Blekinge. Thanks to this investment, the Blekinge region has become the most environmentally friendly region in Sweden with the fossil-free fuel HVO (Hydrated vegetable oils) in 96% of buses and a number of electric-hybrid-buses in the cities. The new contract provided 100% buses adapted to the needs of people with disabilities.
NEW TRAMS OF THE ROSTOCKER STRASSENBAHN AG
Since 2015, 13 new trams are more energy efficient than the previous models. High-performance energy storage units (so-called “supercaps”) on the roofs of new trams store valuable braking energy. That energy is reused for starting the bus as well as for heating and air conditioning. Furthermore, RSAG purchases electricity from renewable energy sources.
The most recent study visit within the framework of the Interconnect project took place in Klaipeda, Lithuania. On 21st May, the project partners from Germany, Poland, Sweden, Estonia and Lithuania met at the “Klaipedos keleivinis transportas” headquarters in order to analyze solutions used in public transport in this region of Lithuania.
The management of the Klaipeda city transport introduced a number of innovative solutions in public transport earlier this year including a new ticket system and management system of the Estonian company Ridango.
Mayors of Rostock and Guldborgsund celebrated the 5th anniversary of twin-city ship. The Danish delegation travelled without passenger cars or bus, as pedestrian passengers, experienced the meanwhile attractive "Baltic Sea crossing" public transport services, which are offered in cooperation with the transport companies Movia, Scandlines and Verkehrsverbund Warnow.
All analysed regions tend to provide public transport services using the most modern fleet of vehicles.
It is also intended to introduce into operation vehicles which are most friendly to the environment (powered by electric energy, CNG or meet the highest Euro emission standards). All analysed regions also tend to ensure the highest availability of public transport for people with disabilities. To this end, in Rostock all tram stops and the majority of bus stops (62%) have been so designed to remove all barriers for people with disabilities. Moreover, the fleet of vehicles is also adapted to render transport services for people with disabilities. All buses are low-floor buses and are equipped with wheelchair ramp. Also in Klaipeda all city buses, new route-taxi, both 12-meter and 16.5-meter are low-floor buses.
The degree of public transport integration is one of the factors affecting the attractiveness and quality of rendered services. The integration of public transport services makes
it possible to:
•strengthen the competitive edge of collective transport relative to individual transport,
•reduce the costs of public transport services through eliminating lines that substitute each other,
•increase the scale and effectiveness of performed marketing activities (more effective ticket distribution, better possibilities to differentiate prices, more effective promotion
of public transport, and easier transfer of information from enterprise to client).